By Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin
This booklet takes a multidisciplinary and long term historic standpoint to check the evolution of African political structures and associations. It ranges from Antiquity (Egypt, Kush, and Axum) to the current, with a selected specialise in the destruction of those political structures and associations via successive exogenous methods, together with the Atlantic slave alternate, imperialism, colonialism, and neo-colonialism or globalization.
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Rome ruled these areas through provincial governors called proconsuls—it laid waste to the region’s farmlands and encouraged Roman ex-servicemen to settle there. Roman senators and tax collecting companies benefited at the expense of Libyans, whose land they seized. Military conquest was slow because of Libyan resistance. Roman rule finally ended in the second century AD. Roman colonization was a purely urban phenomenon that had absolutely no impact on the Berber people in the rural areas—it lasted for four centuries (five in other areas), then the Vandals (of German origin) replaced the Romans.
Once a king died, his companions had to die, too. The people considered their fate as tied to that of the king; as a result, they could not conspire to harm him. Political rule was believed to be divinely ordained. Kush was characterized by political stability and continuity based on tradition and customs. As in other parts of Africa, the queen mother played a crucial role in the political system. As “Mistress of Kush,” she sometimes adopted the wife of her son to ensure new blood into the kingship.
The power of the wealthy aristocracy increased during this period. The aristocracy appointed a council of state, as well as a court that was made up of one hundred members who controlled the state. In general, the wealthy and privileged classes dominated politics, although average citizens participated in the election of the king. Kings, councils, and Siefets decided on all important political matters—such issues were only brought to the masses’ attention if the elite disagreed. Carthage did not have a standing army.
A New Paradigm of the African State: Fundi wa Afrika by Mueni wa Muiu, Guy Martin