By Etienne Nodet
Translated by way of J. Edward Crowley. This radical reconstruction of the origins of Judaism begins via watching that Josephus's resources at the early historical past of Israel don't believe the Bible and that the oldest rabbinic traditions convey no signal of a biblical origin. one other fascinating query is raised through the Samaritan declare, on the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, they'd only in the near past acquired the Sabbath from the Jews. From such information, Nodet creates a accomplished line of argument that finds significant assets of Judaism, as symbolized within the subtitle of his paintings: Joshua used to be the person who verified in the neighborhood in writing a statute and a legislation on the Shechem meeting, whereas the Mishnah was once the last word metamorphosis of traditions introduced from Babylon and mixed with Judaean influences.
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Extra resources for A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua to the Mishnah
The accounts describing the parties provide an insight into the ideas of Josephus. 119-66; after having named in order the Pharisees, the Sadducees and the Essenes, the rest of the account is devoted almost entirely to the Essenes (§ 119-61), as if they had pride of place with the author. 171-73, which refers to the previous list in The Jewish War and indeed generally follows it in regard to the Pharisees and the Sadducees, but slips between them a single-sentence summary on the Essenes. The reason for this account in this place, in connection with the youth of John Hyrcanus, is to give to understand that the Pharisees and the Sadducees were already clearly defined and that they ran schools.
If Mattathias had united the observant Jews in a federation, and if Judas his son had eliminated the Hellenizers, it is hard to see how a difference could have developed between Pharisees and Sadducees, at least as important and not just marginal groups, even while admitting that the Essenes were later, something that is in no way demonstrated. 110-12 where Josephus is in no way preoccupied with glorifying them. There remains as well that rumour according to which a great Hasmonaean king, either Hyrcanus or Janneus, moved over from the Pharisaic party (or the 'Wise') to the Sadducean party (arrogant advocates of the non-written Law), in circumstances that are obscure: the dynasty has changed parties and has become evil.
31-33, it was really a quarrel in Jerusalem between Onias and the Tobiads; the latter were expelled but took refuge with Antiochus, who invaded Judaea, took Jerusalem, looted the Temple and prohibited the practice of Judaism, while Onias, who had taken refuge in Egypt, built a temple there. These accounts are hard to harmonize, but one of their common traits is that neither shows clearly what interest a sovereign could have had in carrying on a religious persecution, once order had been re-established and the Temple plundered.
A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua to the Mishnah by Etienne Nodet