By William Chauvenet
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Extra resources for A treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry
Focus on forms refers to synthetic approaches to language teaching where the L2 is analysed in different parts such as grammar and vocabulary and these elements are taught in isolation from context. This type of approach to grammar teaching is found on structural syllabuses, where the syllabus consists of long and elaborate explanations of the grammatical rules of the target L2 followed by activities in which learners have to produce the target language through mechanical drills. This model of focus on forms has been criticized by scholars (Long and Robinson, 1998; Wong and Van Patten, 2003) particularly on the basis of the fact that L2 learners, rather than learning discrete lexical or grammatical items one at a time, follow predictable sequences in certain L2 features.
This technique is called textual enhancement and it is used to make particular features of written input more salient with the scope to help learners notice these forms and make form–meaning connections for. The target form is enhanced by visually altering its appearance in the text (italicized, bolded, underlined). Oral input enhancement can also be provided by using special stress, intonation and gestures in spoken input. Question to reflect on . . Can you think of an example of a textual enhancement activity in Japanese?
Terrell, 1986, 1991) (2) What type of focus on form is available? (1) Van Patten (1990) has investigated the effects of simultaneous attention to form and meaning in L2 learners. Van Patten measured the ability for low, intermediate and high proficiency university level learners to attend simultaneously to form and meaning. His findings suggest that learners find it difficult to attend to both form and meaning in the input they are exposed to. ’ As a number of scholars have pointed out (Van Patten and Cadierno, 1993; Hulstijn 1989) L2 learners must attend to linguistic features in the input as well as to messages.
A treatise on plane and spherical trigonometry by William Chauvenet