Advanced Pharmaceutical Solids (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical by Jens T. Carstensen PDF

By Jens T. Carstensen

ISBN-10: 0585427712

ISBN-13: 9780585427713

ISBN-10: 0824704312

ISBN-13: 9780824704315

Delivering present information on crystallization, dissolution from debris and polydisperse populations, powder volumes and densities, comminution, rainy granulation, and hard-shell tablets, complicated Pharmaceutical Solids, describes moisture isotherms with crystalline solids, files the consequences of moisture on solid-state balance, highlights capsule physics and ideas, explains sustained unlock through microencapsulation, provides prediction equations for solubility in binary solvents, discusses particle sizes and diameters, identifies Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller Isotherms and extra! contemplating homes of solids, permeamitry and fuel absorption tools, amorphates, and purification by means of pH-change precipitation, complicated Pharmaceutical Solids is a vital reference for pharmacists pharmaceutical scientists medicinal, actual, floor, colloid, and analytical chemists and biochemists and a good textual content for upper-level undergraduate and graduate scholars in those disciplines.

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Sample text

This is often considered a constant. 17) and assuming that it is constant then implies that AH is temperature-indepen~ent. There is but little difference between Cp and Cvfor solids, and they may be interchanged freely. he considerations to be outlined in the following are mostly based on work etals, but they translate to organic molecules as well. The heat capacity is assumed to be associated with the energy E of the molecules in the lattice, and these are assumed to be harmonic oscillators. In classic theory, the average energy of a system is kT' per degree of freedom, where k is the oltzmann constant and 7' is absolute temperature.

The heat of vaporization). Vapor Pressure of Benzoic Acid as a Function o f Tempe~ature P = vapor pressure Temp (“C) 60 70 80 90 100 110 Source: West and Selby (1967). 767 50 60 7080 9 0 100 110 120 Temp ("C) Vapor pressure of benzoic acid as a function of temperature. 826 - 7 . 2 (see Fig. 9) treated according to Eq. 55). The heat of fusion AHmelt is the difference between the two, that is, Vapor pressure curves (Fig. 11) and melting points will assume a special significance when further discussion on polymorphism is presented.

It will be assumed that the equilibrium is between a solid and its vapor. 41) where G is number of components, P is number of phases, and df is the degrees of hases. 43) = Ps where the subscript g denotes gas and s denotes solid. 46) and where s and v are molar entropy and volume. A similar set of equations for the solid ence, Eq. 51) where A H is the heat absorbed at constant temperature and pressure when X mol of substance passes from the solid to the gaseous state (Le.? it is the molar heat of egarding the volumes, the molar volume in the s d stateis negligi~le that in the gas phase, and if this is considered (VI - v,) 25 VI (2,52) =RT/P ~ntroductionof Eqs.

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Advanced Pharmaceutical Solids (Drugs and the Pharmaceutical Sciences) by Jens T. Carstensen


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