By Enlli Mon Thomas, Ineke Mennen
This e-book offers a latest method of the learn of bilingualism. Drawing on contributions from major specialists within the box, this e-book brings jointly - in one quantity - a range of the fascinating paintings performed as a part of the programme of the ESRC Centre for learn on Bilingualism in thought and perform at Bangor college, Wales.
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On average, the shorter the VOT (less native-like) in the English casual speech of his participants, the shorter their Portuguese VOT was (more native-like). However, this correlation was not displayed when the participants’ formal English speech was examined (he elicited formal speech through word and sentence lists whereas casual speech was taken from informal spontaneous conversations) and when individuals were explored, ‘the results of the bilingual speakers showed a variety of patterns in their relative mastery of Portuguese and their ability to retain native-like English proficiency’ (1992: 193).
The same holds true for three-element clusters of the type /s/ + stop + sonorant. 2 Maturational Constraints in Bilingual Speech Esther de Leeuw Introduction Most research concentrates on how the first language (L1) influences the second language (L2), but some research has shown that it is possible for late consecutive bilinguals to perform deviantly from native speaker norms in L1 speech. This chapter will deal with research in this area, here termed L1 attrition in the phonetic domain. Initially, the definition of L1 attrition is discussed, followed by an overview of research findings pertaining to L1 attrition in the domain of phonetics in late consecutive bilinguals.
The Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP) provides an explanation for these patterns (Gierut, 1999; Ohala, 1999). Accordingly, cluster reductions will occur in such a manner as to produce a maximal rise in sonority from the syllable onset to its nucleus. Sonority, in turn, refers to a sound’s ‘loudness relative to that of other sounds with the same length, stress and pitch’ (Ladefoged, 1975: 221). By this definition, vowels are the most sonorous sounds, followed by approximants, liquids and nasals, with fricatives and stops the least sonorous.
Advances in the Study of Bilingualism by Enlli Mon Thomas, Ineke Mennen