By Walter L. Hixson (auth.)
Over the process 3 centuries, American settlers helped to create the richest, strongest country in human background, while they killed and displaced thousands. This groundbreaking paintings indicates that American heritage is outlined through settler colonialism, supplying a compelling framework in which to appreciate its upward thrust to international dominance.
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Once the category of “Indians” was created, distinguishing features had to be elaborated. 12 Despite the polarizing discourse, ambivalence manifested from the beginning, as Indians and Europeans cooperated, accommodated, and adapted within the colonial encounter. Indigenous groups and Europeans engaged in trade and diplomacy and marriage and friendship and all manners of cultural exchange, as well as violent conﬂict. Whether or not they respected or empathized with indigenous people, the vast majority of Europeans viewed their way of life as superior to that of “savages” and this conceit ultimately drove the colonial encounter.
The friars condemned the soldiers for their sexual relations with 28 AMERICAN SETTLER COLONIALISM indigenous women, set up sometimes by consent and sometimes by force. For their part the priests exploited indigenous laborers, who were required to work from sunrise to sunset, sometimes on a starvation diet, and often punished them severely for noncompliance. As resistance to colonial oppression is inevitable, the indigenes revolted, most famously in the Pueblo uprising of 1680. This violent uprising against Spanish colonialism took the lives of some 400 Spaniards including 21 priests and drove them out of Santa Fe.
While some continued to emphasize reform and salvation, other traumatized Spaniards called for extermination of the Indios barbaros. 19 Despite the obstacles Spain persisted with its overstretched colonial empire, especially as other European powers posed a threat to it. Following the landing on the Texas coast in 1684 of the French under Robert Cavelier de La Salle, the Spanish established missions and presidios in Texas along the Rio Grande and further north at San Antonio. ” “New France” had originated to the north in 1534 with Jacques Cartier’s advance up the St.
American Settler Colonialism: A History by Walter L. Hixson (auth.)