By Robert G. Fleagle and Joost A. Businger (Eds.)
This publication is addressed to people who desire to comprehend the connection among atmospheric phenomena and the character of subject as expressed within the rules of physics. The fascinating atmospheric phenomena are greater than purposes of gravitation, of thermodynamics, of hydrodynamics, or of electrodynamics; and mastery of the result of managed test and of the similar concept on my own doesn't suggest an figuring out of atmospheric phenomena. This contrast arises as the volume and the complexity of the ambience enable results and interactions which are totally negligible within the laboratory or are intentionally excluded from it. the target of laboratory physics is, through keeping apart the suitable variables, to bare the elemental homes of topic; while the target of atmospheric physics, or of any observational technology, is to appreciate these phenomena which are attribute of the entire procedure. For those purposes the exposition of atmospheric physics calls for significant extensions of classical physics. It additionally calls for that knowing be in accordance with a coherent "way of seeing" the ensemble of atmospheric phenomena. merely then is knowing prone to stimulate nonetheless extra common insights.
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Therefore, compression of the gas with decreasing height occurs at the expense of potential energy only, and an atmosphere in equilibrium is also an atmosphere with uniform temperature. This conclusion holds for a gas in equilibrium in any potential field. As a consequence of Dalton's law, which states that under equilibrium conditions the partial pressure of each component of a mixture of gases is the same as the pressure exerted by that gas if it occupied the volume alone, the hydrostatic equation may be integrated independently for each constituent of a mixture of gases.
It is also assumed that the distribution of molecular velocities is the same in all directions. 15 that these last two assumptions are valid for the condition of maximum probability. Solution of Problem 1 yields the smallest volume increment for which the assumption of a uniform distribution still is true. To find an expression for the number of molecules striking a wall per unit area and per unit time, consider the small element dA of the wall sketched in Fig. 1 and construct the normal to the element and a reference plane through the normal.
Another way to evaluate the contribution from the outer shell is to consider a cone with apex at the point mass and solid angle dw. This cone subtends an area of the shell given by ri doi, and the gravitational attraction due to this portion of the shell is Grip di» dR r1 --~2-- = Gp dt» dR The opposite side of the shell exerts a gravitational force given in a similar way by Gp dw dR. These forces are in opposite directions. Upon integrating over all solid angles, the net force due to the outer shell remains zero.
An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics by Robert G. Fleagle and Joost A. Businger (Eds.)